Glossary & appendix

Appendix

Table 1: Total number of detainees who provided a urine sample, 2007-2016
  2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Total urine samples 1,780 1,857 1,889 1,750 1,816 895 723 741 690 1,057

Note: Not every detainee interviewed provided a urine sample for analysis.

Table 2: Total number of detainees interviewed, 2012-2016
  2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Total detainees 3,867 1,153 2,336 2,200 2,200
Table 3: Total number of detainees who provided a urine sample by most serious offence, 2012-2016
MSO 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Violent 266 222 197 182 333
Property 169 145 161 152 201
Drug 58 71 65 54 109
DUI 13 15 13 9 7
Traffic 35 31 32 24 47
Disorder 70 48 55 49 53
Breach 264 176 199 195 278
Other 8 8 9 14 20
Any 883 718 731 679 1,048

Note: Samples where corresponding charge information was unavailable were not included.

Glossary

Detainees

Persons who have been arrested by police and brought to a police station or watch house for charging.

DUMA site

Police stations and watch houses in which interviews with police detainees are conducted for the DUMA program. DUMA data presented throughout the Crime Statistics Australia website is based on data from four long-term sites — Adelaide, Bankstown, Brisbane and Perth.

Time of detention

The time at which a police detainee is arrested and brought into custody.

Tested positive

Where toxicology results show that a drug or its metabolites are detected in a police detainee’s urine sample at or above the cut-off levels set in accordance with the Australian Standard (AS/NZS 4308-2008).

Offence for which they were detained

Detainees understanding of the main offence for which they were detained.

Attribution

Detainees’ perceptions on how their substance use contributed to the offence for which they were detained.

Standard drink

A standard drink is any drink containing 10 grams of alcohol. The standard drinks conversions for wine, beer and spirits are available here: http://www.alcohol.gov.au/internet/alcohol/publishing.nsf/Content/drinksguide-cnt

Any drug

Detainees who have tested positive to any drug via urinalysis are characterised as those who have any of the following drugs in their system:

  • amphetamines (including methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA and/or other amphetamines);
  • benzodiazepines;
  • cannabis;
  • cocaine; or
  • opiates (including heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and/or other opiates).

Multiple drugs

Detainees who have tested positive to multiple drugs via urinalysis are characterised as those who have two or more of the following drugs in their system:

  • amphetamines (including methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA and/or other amphetamines);
  • benzodiazepines;
  • cannabis;
  • cocaine; or
  • opiates (including heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and/or other opiates).

Detainees who tested positive to more than one amphetamine or opiate type are not classified as a multiple drug user unless they tested positive to another drug.

Most serious offence category

The most serious offence category is assigned to a detainee based on the most serious charge laid against them during their most current period of detention. Charges are assigned to each DUMA detainee according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Australian and New Zealand Standard Offence Classification (ANZSOC) (ABS 2011). The category assigned to a detainee is based on a hierarchy from most to least serious offence i.e. violent, property, drug, DUI, traffic, disorder, breach, and other lesser offences respectively. For example, if a detainee was charged with a violent and a drug offence, they would be classified in the most serious offence of violent.

Violent offences

Characterised as offences where violence was involved, including: homicide and related offences; acts intended to cause injury; sexual assault and related offences; dangerous or negligent acts endangering persons; robbery, extortion and related offences; and prohibited and regulated weapons and explosives offences.

Property offences

Characterised as offences involving theft and/or where deception has been used to gain a benefit. This includes unlawful entry with the intent to commit an offence; burglary/break and enter; unlawful taking or obtaining of money or goods (including motor vehicles) and fraud, forgery and counterfeiting.

Drug offences

Characterised as offences involving drugs (including possession, manufacture, distribution, and use) and includes the misuse of prescription drugs.

DUI offences

Characterised as offences where a detainee was driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs.

Traffic offences

Characterised as offences where a detainee was operating a vehicle in an illegal manner. This includes driving while suspended, driving without a license and/or dangerous, negligent or culpable driving.

Disorder offences

Characterised as offences where a detainee has caused disruption or offence to the general public (e.g. trespass, offensive conduct, consumption of alcohol in regulated spaces) and property damage (e.g. vandalism, graffiti).

Breach offences

Characterised as offences where a detainee has breached a court order. For example, breach of violence orders, breach of custodial orders (e.g. home detention, suspended sentence or escape from custody) or breach of community-based orders (e.g. community service order, parole or bail).

Other offences

Characterised as a range of offences, including environmental pollution, pedestrian offences and offences against justice procedures, government security and operations.